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UPDATE: Chapter 24: Not Peace but a Sword (1913-60) – Part I – Mussolini, the Vatican State, and the Armenian Genocide

 

Lateran Treaty

The Pope was gifted the Vatican statehood by dictator Benito Mussolini in the Lateran Treaty of 1929. Here Cardinal Gaspari (representing Pope Pius XI) and Mussolini sign the treaty.

 

 

Last Tuesday we completed and went over the first half of Chapter 24.

 

In this first half of this chapter, we’re covering the groundwork of our modern age into the 20th and 21st centuries.  Here we saw the decline of Christendom in Europe.  During our discussion, we all agreed that Christendom was faltering for the most part as a dominant political (and even social/spiritual) institution from the 18th century onwards, but its decline was precipitated by the start of World War I.

 

To say the least, the start of the 20th century was marked by brutality and upheaval of enormous proportions, especially with the onslaught of World War I.

 

Here are our essays for the first half of this chapter.

 

 

Chapter 24: Not Peace but a Sword (1913-60) – Part I

Happy New Year!

For our first meeting of 2015 for next week, please read the first three sections of Chapter 24: A War That Killed Christendom (1914-18); Great Britain: The Last Years of Christian Empire; Catholics and Christ the King: The Second Age of Catholic Missions.

 

American soldier dies during a German gas attack during WWI.  May, 1918.

American soldier dies during a German gas attack during WWI. May, 1918.

 

 

Please answer one of the following questions:

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Chapter 22: Europe Re-enchanted or Disenchanted? (1815 – 1914) – Part II

Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882)

Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

 

 

 

We’re still alive! Trust me.

 

We were on hiatus because everyone’s schedule seemed quite packed last month, but we’re itching to come back.

 

Next Wednesday, we’ll finish up with the last three sections of Chapter 22: British Protestantism and the Oxford Movement, Orthodoxy: Russia and Ottoman Decay, Masters of Suspicion: Geology, Biblical Criticism and Atheism.

 

 

Please write a one page summary of one of the following questions:

 

  1. Describe the aims of the ‘Oxford Movement’ during the 1830s in England. What were its aims? Who were the Tractarians? What was the relationship between the Church of England and the State like at this time? What was John Henry Newman’s role during this period? And what were their fears about the Roman Catholic Church?
  2. Discuss the relations between the Ottoman Empire and the Orthodox Church (especially the Russian Orthodox Church) after the Russo-Turkish War of 1768 – 74. Why did the Russian Church tolerate the tsar’s tight control over the Church? How did Jews and Greek Catholics fair during the ‘Holy Alliance’ formed by Tsar Alexander in 1815? Why was the ‘Holy Alliance’ formed in the first place?
  3. Describe the role the Russian Orthodox Church played in the independence of Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire. How was the Ottoman Empire affected afterwards, especially the Ottoman rulers’ pursuit of Tanzimat?
  4. Discuss the impact of Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection. How did his books, On the Orgin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871), change how humankind was looked upon versus the biblical view of humankind? How are Darwin and his theory tied with his role in the anti-slavery/abolitionist movement?       How did the relatively new science of geology change the perception of the Bible?
  5. Describe the rise of biblical criticism during the 19th century. Discuss the works of pastors and missionaries, like David Strauss and Albert Schweitzer, in their quests for the ‘historical Jesus’. How did perceptions of the Bible change because of higher criticism?
  6. Discuss the development of ‘Fundamentalism’ during the 1870s. What was it a reaction against? How and why did it form? How did it get its name? Discuss the roles Ira Sankey and D. L. Moody played in its rise. What are the central tenets of Fundamentalism?
  7. Discuss the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.       Describe his ‘God is dead’ philosophy. Discuss how his Lutheran upbringing molded some aspects of his anti-Christian rhetoric.

 

Hope to see everyone next Wednesday.

 

 

 

Chapter 14: Orthodoxy – More Than an Empire (900 – 1700)

 

Next Wednesday, we will discuss Chapter 14 which deals with the Orthodox Church during the time of the Crusades, up until its fall by the Ottomans in 1453, and the Orthodox Church’s struggle under Ottoman control afterwards.

 

The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453

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