For next Tuesday, Sept. 23 read the first 3 sections of Chapter 22: Europe Re-enchanted or Disenchanted? (1815 – 1914) – Catholicism Ascendant: Mary’s Triumph and the Challenge of Liberalism, Protestantism: Bibles and ‘First-Wave’ Feminism, and A Protestant Enlightenment: Schleiermacher, Hegel and Their Heirs.
Please write a on one of the following topics:
- Discuss the growing emotional loyalty to the papacy and the Catholic Church and away from aristocratic leaders called “ultramontanism”. How did this impact the role and image of the pope going forward? How did this movement affect Catholicism throughout Europe? What were its ties with the Enlightenment?
- Discuss how the nineteenth century was one of the most prolific periods for the sightings and visions of the Virgin Mother Mary. How did it tie-in with the ultramontanist movement? What did most visions have in common with one another?
- Discuss the aims of Pope Pius IX’s aims to modernize Italy in 1846 and the impact of his attachment to one of his encyclical letters titled a “Syllabus of Errors”. What were his aims in calling for a Vatican Council in 1869 and the development of the Catholic doctrine of Pastor aeternus (‘The Eternal Shepherd’) and papal infallibility.
- Discuss the increasing roles women began to play in Protestant Churches during the 18th and 19th centuries with prophetesses like Joanna Southcott and the Campbell Sisters. Discuss why some denominations allowed women to become ministers and other higher positions in church during this era of ‘first-wave feminism‘. How did the belief in post-millenialism play a part in this movement?
- What was the impact on theology in Europe by Friedrich Schleiermacher? How did his views of religion differ from the more Pietist traditions of Prussia during this time? What were his views on the religious consciousness of God in respect to other religions?
- Discuss the importance and philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. How did his philosophy differ from Kant’s? What was his overall philosophy of history? What was his philosophy of the Spirit?
- Discuss the importance of the work of the Danish Lutheran Soren Kierkegaard. What were his views on human existence, sin, and the clergy? How did his personal life affect his thoughts on life and religion?
- Discuss the establishment and rise of the Second Empire (Reich) by Hohenzollern Prussia in 1871. Discuss how triumphalist Protestant theology shaped the policies of the Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in his desire to eliminate Catholicism as a significant political force in northern Europe. Why did his plans fail? How did all this relate with the overall move away from Christianity and religion by the general populace in Prussia? What was taking the place of Christianity for the people during this time?
- What were the aims of the Evangelical Alliance in wanting to have Jews to return to Palestine during 1846? How has this affected relations in the Middle East till this day? Who was Michael Solomon and why was he so important for this movement?
Please submit your essays by Monday, Sept. 22.